What is Bespoke Lighting, Styles and Characteristics
If you want to know bespoke lighting’s all kinds of knowledge and parameters, please pay attention to our articles, our company has many years of experience in the production of custom lamps to share with you.
What is bespoke lighting and its category
Bespoke lighting refer to luminaires produced individually for a specific location, not mass-produced standard luminaires. Whether it is commercial lighting or decorative lighting, it can be customized.
In the process of communicating with customized customers, or when customized customers choose customized lamps and lanterns, if they have a clear understanding of the style, classification and characteristics of customized lamps, and the efficiency of communication and selection will be higher.
Distinguish by function
Table lamps, floor lamps, wall lamps, chandeliers, ceiling lamps, outdoor lamps…
Distinguish by material difference
Iron lamps, crystal lamps, copper lamps, resin lamps, casting lamps, aluminum lamps…
Distinguish by culture and history
Retro lamps, modern lamps, post-modern lamps, Chinese lamps (new Chinese), American lamps, European lamps, French lamps
According to the current mainstream style of the market
Chinese style, French style, American style, European style, Mediterranean style, rural country style, Nordic minimalist postmodern style, modern light luxury style, Arabic style, industrial style, modern minimalist style, etc. With modern light luxury style, industrial style, etc., it is the mainstream design concept in the current market. Baroque style is the representative style of both trend and luxury.
Modern light luxury style and Nordic minimalist postmodern
In the above six pictures, the first three are representatives of modern light luxury style. Highlights strong metal texture, clear crystal or glass, designed for styling without design connotation. The latter three are representative of NATO’s postmodern style. Low profile or light gold finish, absolutely no crystal, clear or stained glass, design inspired by nature. Design level light luxury classification: simple luxury, complex luxury, elegant luxury, wild luxury.
Note: “Macaron” is a term with relatively high exposure in the past two years. It represents only a color style and belongs to the Nordic style. The difference between macaron and color is that the color saturation is low, and the thick color becomes very light and cute, not bright and eye-catching.
French Style Lighting
The traditional French style is the representative of luxury and the pinnacle of European furniture and architectural culture. Lamps usually use dewaxed copper as the main material, supplemented by crystal, ceramics, handmade glass and other materials, with complicated flower and wood textures, characters and animals as display patterns. Full of noble luxury. The French style is also a special kind of European style. It has the obvious characteristics of European lamps, but it is beyond the ordinary.
Note: Rococo style (Rococo); It is characterized by: I like to use arc and S-shaped decorative styles, especially shells, swirls, and rocks as decorative themes. The ceiling and walls are sometimes connected by arcs, and murals are arranged at the corners. Interior building components are also often shaped asymmetrically in order to mimic natural forms. The interior walls are painted, and I like to use bright green, pink, rose red and other bright light shades of curly grass and flowers, and most of the lines are gold. From the lighting level: French style and Rococo style can be understood as an integration.
European Style Lighting
European style is a style from Europe. There are mainly French style, Italian style, Spanish style, British style, Mediterranean style, Nordic style and other major schools. European style is the strong cultural connotation expressed by the cultural traditions of European countries.
The biggest feature of the classical European style is that it is extremely particular about the shape, giving people the feeling of being dignified, elegant, noble and gorgeous, with a strong cultural atmosphere. Common lamps have the form of cast copper, cast zinc, iron + resin and so on.
Among them, Mediterranean and Nordic style applications are becoming mainstream, and their performance in the lighting market is becoming more and more important. We will list them separately for analysis later.
American Style Lighting
There are two typical American styles: retro American style and simple beauty. There are two types of retro American styles, one is country style, the other is American pastoral style; the characteristic of simple and beautiful style is to simplify the design elements, colors, lighting and raw materials to a minimum.
However, the requirements for the color and texture of the materials are very high. Compared with the retro American style, it has a brighter modern atmosphere. Therefore, the simple and beautiful space design is very subtle, and it can often achieve the effect of winning more with less, and more with simplicity.
The United States is an immigrant country. People of all ethnic groups in Europe came to the American colonies and brought the decoration and furniture styles of all ethnic groups and regions to the United States. Combined with the cultural characteristics of the American continent, they formed a kind of nostalgic, expensive The air adds to the atmosphere without losing the comfortable and casual style.
Mediterranean Style Lighting
The reason why the Mediterranean style is more and more popular among Chinese people is because of its pure color combination. Among them, the three typical color combinations that are more regional are the blue coast of Spain and the white sandy beach; the white villages of Greece are integrated with the sandy beach, the blue sea and the blue sky, and the deserts, rocks and so on unique to North Africa.
Supplemented with unique elements related to the ocean, such as anchors, ship rudders, marine animals and plants, etc., the colors are fresh, and most of them are interspersed with blue, which is one of the obvious distinguishing features. The Mediterranean style is also a type of European style, but it is different from the dullness and excessive stability of the traditional European style.
Country, pastoral style Lighting
Pastoral style is to express the pastoral atmosphere through decoration. It is a style that is close to nature and yearns for nature. It advocates the “return to nature” style and strives to express the leisure, comfort and natural taste of rural life.
In rustic style, roughness and breakage are allowed, because only then is it closer to nature. The pastoral style is called pastoral style because the theme expressed in pastoral style is close to nature and shows the atmosphere of simple life. Its biggest characteristic is: simple, kind, and real.
There are many kinds of pastoral styles, including English pastoral, American pastoral, French pastoral, Chinese pastoral and so on. Projects using this style are generally not of high grade or belong to the leisure and vacation category and bars.
Note: The difference between pastoral style and country style; The elements of the pastoral style are rich, bright and full of life because of their vitality.
The country style has no vitality because of its elements. Although it is a plant element, it presents vicissitudes, precipitation and ancient times, with a certain retro color.
Arabian Style Lighting
Arabian style, or Islamic style decoration, is often used in theme restaurants in projects. The Arabic architectural art style has its own unique characteristics, mainly consisting of Arabic ornamentation consisting of geometric ornamentation, plant ornamentation and Arabic calligraphy ornamentation.
Color: With bright gold and deep bronze as the main surface treatment.
Material: The hardware with hollowed-out characters and national cultural patterns is the main visual effect,
Processing method: roughness, atmosphere and cultural connotation are obvious features.
Industrial Style Lighting
The traditional design reflects an old but modern rough style. The pursuit is the original and retro feel. The main colors are black and white gray and black bronze. Metal skeleton and double-jointed lamps are the easiest elements to create an industrial style.
There are also exposed tungsten light bulbs, various pipes, wire meshes and other elements, which have very strong style characteristics and visual effects.
Details of industrial style
Color: black and white gray + retro style. Match the original exposed exterior walls, ceilings, floors, etc.
Material: Iron art is the main display style, with pipes, industrial parts, leather, weathered logs, burlap or textured glass, etc.
Processing method: original, natural, retro
Modern Minimalist Style Lighting
The modern minimalist style is a decoration style based on simplicity. It proposes furniture shapes suitable for assembly line production, and advocates simplicity in architectural decoration.
The characteristics of the minimalist style are to simplify the design elements, colors, lighting, and raw materials to The minimum level, but the requirements for color and material texture are very high. Therefore, the simple space design is usually very subtle, and it can often achieve the effect less is more.
Features: 1. The color that expresses individuality. 2. Simple space lines. 3. The style of the material. Simple lines can best express the spirit of modern minimalist style, emphasize symmetry and balance, do not make useless decorations, present neat lines, and allow the vision to extend in the space without hindrance.
The difference with Nordic minimalist lamps and postmodern lamps: Nordic minimalist post-modern; in shape and lines, it has a connotative charm, its inspiration comes from natural creativity, and it has rich imagination space. Simple and modern style; basically it can be understood as the use of geometric lines, with simplicity, smoothness and extension as the main design direction, without specific connotations.
Baroque Style Lighting
Baroque style is one of the most popular home decoration styles on the market. It represents a free, uninhibited and distinctive design concept, so it is deeply favored and liked by everyone.
Baroque style decoration features: rich colors, luxury and grace, emphasizing linear flow changes, pay attention to the integrity of decoration. It pays great attention to integrity when dressing up. In addition to exquisite carvings on the surface of furniture, it also emphasizes the shape and structure of objects to create a comfortable and harmonious atmosphere.
Baroque lamps are very luxurious, because they have both religious characteristics and hedonistic colors. Generally, there are more complicated, luxurious and delicate carvings on the furniture, with gold, silver strokes or some heavy-toned fabrics, which look like Gives a palace-like golden and splendid feeling. The material is also made of high-grade solid wood such as walnut and oak or high-quality metal, which is expensive.
Baccarat Style Lighting
It is a luxury brand of French crystal products and perfumes, but it is not a brand of single lighting products, it only has a unique style because of its special crystal. Baccarat’s crystal furniture accessories (crystal chandeliers, crystal wall lamps, crystal candle holders, crystal wine sets) are beautiful works of art.
Its pioneering work is to study opaque crystals, on the basis of not increasing the lead content, still maintaining the high refractive index of the crystals, and at the same time the crystals become opaque colors. Each of Baccarat’s crystal lamps has small red crystals, which is its unique feature.
The difference between Baccarat crystal lamps and Swarovski crystal lamps
Baccarat is a famous French luxury brand. Its magnificent and distinguished crystal treasures have spread all over the world and become synonymous with eminence and dignity. Known as “the crystal of princes”, it is the most expensive crystal in the world.
Swarovski crystals are world-renowned for their unique crystal crushed stone inlays. It is the representative of fashion and trend. With its excellent quality, it has become the world’s leading crystal manufacturer. Swarovski is more exquisite in craftsmanship, but its grade, price and dignity are not as good as Baccarat.
Applications of Bespoke Lighting
Lamps not only play a role in lighting a high-end place, but also enhance the atmosphere and enhance the sense of space design. Therefore, in many public places, custom lamps and lanterns are widely used.
The lighting design of the hotel can set an elegant style for the hotel. For different types of hotels, different lighting designs can be used. For example, hotels are usually divided into business hotels and tourist resorts.
Different styles and lighting effects are required. The color temperature, illuminance, direct lighting and indirect lighting, color tone, luminous flux utilization rate, and color rendering index of customized hotel lamps should be adjusted appropriately according to the style of the hotel.
In terms of the structure of the lamps, the structure of the lamps should also be adjusted according to the size of the hotel elevator or the size of the largest entrance, so as to avoid the lamps being too large to be disassembled and unable to enter the hotel.
The lobby of the hotel and the banquet hall of the hotel generally use lamps with different styles, but the styles echo each other. Considering the light distribution, when the ceiling exceeds 6 meters, a point light source is used on the ceiling, and a narrow beam illuminator is used to provide continuous and uniform brightness.
If it does not exceed 6 meters, a belt-mounted light-emitting ceiling can be used. It is also possible to design flood lights with different angles in the front hall area, and design side lights at both ends of the horizontal axis to increase the three-dimensional effect.
Dining room lighting can be said to be the soul of a restaurant. According to the style of restaurant decoration, materials and the age of customers, we can choose different color temperature.
For the ceiling decorated with wood, if the warm yellow ceiling light of 2500K-3000K is used for lighting, the warm characteristics of wood can be fully obtained; and some fast-food restaurants with modern design style and facing young people, it is best to use 4000-4300K light source , which not only meets the requirements of restaurant lighting design, but also makes the space appear bright and light, giving people a modern and trendy feeling.
The illuminance of the western restaurant should be greater than 100lx, and the illuminance at the 0.75 m horizontal plane of the Chinese restaurant should not be lower than 2001x. The color rendering index Ra should not be less than 80. Dining room chandeliers can play the role of auxiliary lighting and also have decorative effects.
Villa & residential project
Villas and houses are private lamps. Compared with lamps in public places, the single-day use time is relatively short, and the replacement cycle is relatively long. Therefore, in terms of materials, we can choose more durable and easy-to-clean styles, such as stainless steel, copper Yes, electroplated wrought iron. In terms of style, you can also use a style that is more in line with the owner’s personality.
The halls and stairwells of the villa can use larger glass or crystal pendant chandeliers to make the space look more designed.
General residential space is limited, when designing residential lighting, we especially consider the space conditions. The diameter of the general residential chandelier does not exceed 1/3 of the width of the space. In addition, the lamps used in different areas can use different color temperatures, and the lamps placed in the restaurant can use 3000K warm light to promote appetite. Lamps placed in the study can use a color temperature of 5000K-6000K to make people more concentrated.
Office lighting tends to be clean lines and simple colors. In terms of style, customers prefer to choose lamps with a modern style, and determine the luminous flux and illuminance of the light source according to the lighting conditions of the venue.
The greater demand for customized office lamps is related to the appropriate size. It is difficult to find ready-made chandeliers in the market that are just the size of the conference room, and it is not easy to find a ceiling plate that matches the size and shape of the office reception, so it is necessary to customize office lamps.
The customized lamps of the casino are the most luxurious. Large-scale crystal chandeliers, copper lamps, and plated stainless steel and titanium lamps are often used. At the same time, the designer also likes to use the statues full of retro culture as the shape of the lamps. When we make lamps of specified shape, we can flexibly use red copper, sand-turned copper and other processes, so that the production cost is lower, and customers can get better and cheaper products.
In the process of installing large-scale chandeliers, special consideration should be given to the problems of load-bearing and pre-embedding. We will detail the important points of pre-embedding and pre-embedding below.
Shopping mall project
Generally, the atrium of shopping malls requires large chandeliers, and the top of the atrium of shopping centers is often a glass structure, which has insufficient load-bearing conditions, so the chandeliers used generally cannot be heavy. Traditional iron structure pendant lights can affect the aesthetics of the glass top. When we design lamps, the ceiling will be made of light-transmitting acrylic material, which has good load-bearing capacity and is very beautiful.
The lighting of shops in shopping malls can be divided into five directions: induced light distribution, basic safety light distribution, accent lighting, scene lighting and emergency escape lighting.
Induced light distribution: The so-called induced light distribution is to use low-scale lighting to establish a visual order from the very beginning, perhaps at the periphery of the space or at the beginning of entry, and guide customers to follow the invisible but orderly optical fibers. move into space.
Basic safety light distribution: Different commercial spaces have different product characteristics. But they all need a certain level of lighting to identify the product, while ensuring the safety of customers moving in the space. For example, what a restaurant needs is that the light falls on the table softly to illuminate the food and highlight the beauty of the food; while a clothing store needs to cast enough light sources on the clothing display.
Accent lighting: The so-called accent lighting is local lighting. For example, the light source projected on the display stand emphasizes the characteristics of the product. Generally, the more focused LED projection lamps are used. The light source can also be specially placed for the area that you want to emphasize to highlight the characteristics.
Scenario lighting: manipulating different light sources to add visual changes to the space, enriching the visual feast of space and light effects, such as combining electronic products, using buttons to control the scene mode with different light and shadow atmospheres.
Emergency and escape lighting: Emergency lighting systems to ensure public safety must be installed in accordance with regulations.
The main materials of Bespoke Lighting
Among the materials used in the daily use of lamps, there are various materials to choose from. Each material has its inherent characteristics and process characteristics. At the same time, the selected materials and processing
Different methods have different costs. We classify and do the following material selection and cost analysis:
Commonly used iron materials
Iron blanks are divided into spray paint materials, electroplating materials, galvanized sheets, etc. The processing technology of iron materials includes spinning, stamping, corrosion, wire cutting, bending, casting, etc.
Spinning: good economy, low-cost spare parts and small-quantity production; poor machining accuracy, spinning watermark defects on the surface, and low product grade.
Stamping: easy for mass production; high product precision; smooth surface, polishing and electroplating can ensure good quality. High mold cost, small quantity is inconvenient for production
Etching process: Etching, also known as etching process, is used to process products with fine and complex texture and high precision, see the type of drawings.
The principle is: a process method for processing metal parts through photochemical reaction and high-concentration acid corrosion. The precision can be up to +/-0.01mm, which can meet the assembly requirements of different products, and almost all hardware can accept this kind of processing
Hardware wire cutting process: divided into traditional molybdenum wire cutting and laser wire cutting, optical fiber wire cutting, three-dimensional wire cutting and other categories. The wire cutting process has an extremely important process position in the current non-standard customization. High efficiency, good precision, low cost, strong versatility and many other advantages. Wire cutting accuracy 0.03~0.1mm
Traditional molybdenum wire cutting: It can cut most non-ferrous metals, with good stability, but the disadvantage is low efficiency and small processing size. CO2 laser cutting machine: It can cut stainless steel, carbon steel, acrylic board, wood material board, PVC board and many other conventional materials with high efficiency and strong versatility.
Fiber laser cutting machine: It is the laser machine with the fastest cutting speed among the three types of machines, with small slits and good spot quality, which can be used for fine cutting.
Three-dimensional wire cutting: As the name suggests, it can cut three-dimensional workpieces and most non-ferrous metal products.
There are two types of iron casting: sanded iron and dewaxed iron; sanded iron is rough and brittle and cannot be welded, and is generally used for product weighting or municipal facilities accessories; dewaxed iron technology can be used to make decorative products with delicate patterns. The disadvantage is that it cannot be electroplated and can only be painted, which partially replaces the French style.
The physical properties of iron are easy-going, and can be achieved by painting, electroplating, dyeing (thick bronze plating is required first), vacuum plating (chrome plating first), etc.
Stainless steel material
Commonly divided into gray steel (2P plate), 201#, 304#, 316, which can be punched, wire cut, corroded, cast and hand forged.
Gray steel is also a kind of stainless steel, both sides are rough, which can be used as a paint-like anti-rust material to reduce product cost.
201#/304#/316# The material and price characteristics are obvious. The higher the label, the more expensive the price and the stronger the anti-rust ability.
Judgment method for stainless steel accessories: For products with two arc surfaces in the XYZ direction (except for castings), stainless steel accessories cannot be used.
Due to the physical characteristics of hardness and elasticity, stainless steel cannot be processed by spinning. But it can be hand-forged into artistic shapes (with photos).
The characteristics and price of wire cutting and etching are basically the same as those of iron and copper. Conventional sheet specifications: L2440*W1220mm / L3000*W1500mm.
The distinction between > 201# and 304#: a, magnetic detection is unscientific, the same material, flat and curved magnetic properties will be different. b, stainless steel pickling paste, 304# will turn white or not change color, 210# will turn black. C, color contrast detection: 304# is bright white, 201# is dark black. d, Scratch comparison test: under the same strength, 304# shallow scratches, 201# scratches are obvious.
Have spinning, stamping, corrosion, wire cutting, bending, casting, hand forging and so on. The surface process is suitable for paint, vacuum plating, water plating, dyeing, etc.
Sanded copper is usually processed with 65% pure copper and has a rough surface, which is not easy to achieve high-quality grades.
Lost wax casting is mainly used on products with delicate and fine textures such as French copper lamps and copper handicrafts. Commonly used purity 79% and above.
Die-cast copper is usually processed with 65% pure copper. The quality of the process is slightly better than that of sand casting, the size is relatively accurate, the mold cost is high, and common processes can be applied.
The purity of copper pipe and copper plate is 79% and above. The copper pipe material is inquired about the process specification, and the commonly used copper plate market specification: L2000*W1000mm.
The processing limit specification of sanded copper: no more than 500mm, otherwise, it is easy to foam and difficult to repair.
Process and characteristics of aluminum
There are spinning, stamping, corrosion, wire cutting, bending, casting and other processing techniques, painting, dyeing, electroplating and other surface processing methods:
Market whole board specifications: 1000mm*2000mm/2440mm*1220mm/3000mm*1500mm, thickness 0.2~200mm.
The casting of aluminum is generally used in outdoor lamps, and the sand casting process is commonly used, which is rough and has burrs. High-end can also do high-precision automotive engine parts.
Use of aluminum profiles: soft film lamps, office lamps and some special-shaped lamps. The combination of aluminum profiles and silicone strips is a popular style at present.
Surface treatment of aluminum: a, anodized treatment–aluminum color finish. b, electroplating is easy to foam, and the yield rate is about 90%. c. Aluminum dyeing and electroplating require surface oxidation treatment, which is multi-process and the yield rate is unsatisfactory. Processing disadvantages: At present, the welding point cannot be refined, and the welding process of aluminum is avoided as much as possible.
Process and characteristics of zinc alloy
Lighting accessories generally only have casting process: sand casting and die casting: surface treatment: electroplating, spraying, painting, polishing, grinding, etc.
Advantages: good casting performance, it can die-cast precision parts with complex shapes and thin walls, the surface of the castings is smooth, and it has good mechanical properties and wear resistance at room temperature.
Disadvantages: The material characteristics are relatively brittle and the melting point is low, so it cannot be used as a force-bearing part; except for drilling and tapping, there are few machining processes that can be used; zinc alloy castings are the most common
The defect is surface blistering. Zinc alloys have poor corrosion resistance, and many impurities can easily lead to aging and deformation of castings.
The process and characteristics of aluminum alloy
Advantages: Aluminum alloy has low density and good plasticity, and can be processed into various profiles.
Disadvantages: casting defects such as shrinkage cavities, blisters, pores and slag inclusions are prone to occur in production.
The market price between zinc alloy and aluminum alloy is similar, but under the same conditions, the weight of aluminum alloy is about 2.5 times lighter than that of zinc alloy. Therefore,
For casting an item, aluminum alloys are more cost-effective than zinc alloys, if the craftsmanship allows it.
the quick way to grasp the specifications of hardware pipes
The Industrial Revolution originated in Europe, therefore, the basic industrial attributes inevitably bear European imprints. The same is true for our commonly used pipe specifications. At present, there are still quite a few imperial specifications circulating in our lives. In metric conversion, 1”=25.4mm is the basic conversion unit
The Main Non-metallic Materials of Bespoke Lighting
First of all, in terms of material properties, glass can be classified into several categories: profiles (plates and bars), explosion-proof tubes, furnace materials and other profiles generally include flat green glass, ultra-clear glass and textured flat, plum blossom tube, hexagonal.
There are many kinds of octagonal glass rods, triangular four rods, etc. Explosion-proof pipes are generally made of glass pipe profiles, which are heated and engaged in various manual processing.
The processing methods of the hearth are: machine pressing, centrifugal, manual, blowing. All require a certain mold to take material from the high-temperature furnace for modeling processing.
Profile glass: the advantages are low price and simple processing. Baking, drilling, color spraying and vacuum plating can be carried out.
Profiles will not be found in time due to processing damage to the internal stress of the material. The safest use is to use it through the middle hole, and use less door button or other horizontal perforation.
Explosion-proof tube glass products: The maximum diameter of the lighting materials is D200mm, and the thickness is 2.0mm. The shape of the product is manually formed by high temperature heating and melting. Advantages: The mold fee and unit price are relatively cheap, the processing shape is changeable, and the weight is light. It has good plasticity and can process all kinds of pendants and art ornaments. Disadvantages: The material lacks texture, light, thin and fragile, and the surface of the clear product is easy to oxidize and fog after a long time.
Glass products for furnace table lamp: The furnace table material glass is the most widely used glass processing method at present, and there are many kinds of processing technology.
Machine-pressed glass: The upper and lower molds are required for pressing and forming. Therefore, the mold fee is very expensive, and because of the mold release, only the open type can be used. The thickness and size of the product are relatively stable, and the unit price is cheap. A certain production quantity is required.
Centrifugal glass: need to rely on centrifugal force to press the material close to the mold surface. Therefore, a relatively heavy metal lower mold is required, and the mold fee is relatively high. Compared with machine-pressed glass, the mold fee is slightly cheaper. Since the mold needs to be loaded and unloaded, a certain production quantity is required. Machine pressing and centrifugal processes are basically similar, and the difference between the two products can be judged by the uniformity of product thickness.
Handmade glass: This is the most artistic and flexible glass craft, and also the most valuable handmade product. Usually, handmade glass is mainly manual, but in many cases, it must be supplemented by a simple forming mold, but the cost is relatively cheap, and some do not charge at all. The maximum length of the handmade glass is 1200mm, and the size of the worker’s arms determines the processing specifications. The larger the size, the lower the quality and the higher the price. Handmade glass is divided into local imitation glass and Shandong glass. In terms of craftsmanship, Shandong’s glass is better and the price is higher;
Blown glass: Blowing is the most widely used process for lighting. There are two types of glass blowing: mold method and blow molding method. Mold method: The mold method is divided into two categories: water mold and fire mold. When the water mold needs to be blown, the product can be rotated, so the surface will be relatively smooth. The fire mold is commonly known as the dead mold, and the product will leave a certain mold mark and will not be eliminated. The mold method can relatively guarantee the accurate product size. Blow molding method: This process is purely based on air blowing, which largely depends on the technical level of the workers. The surface smoothness will be better than that of the mold method. The disadvantage is that the size error is relatively large and cannot be relatively accurate.
The above two blowing methods both need to be based on the technical level and lung capacity of workers. Among them, the lung capacity determines the size of the product. Conventionally, we take the length, width or diameter, and any size exceeding 500mm is the limit size.
Blown glass can also be processed by hand in the later stage. If the glass is not cooled to a certain temperature, some artistic reprocessing can be carried out. After annealing, some relative artistic modifications can still be made to the surface.
K9 leady crystal, K5 ordinary crystal; hand grinding, machine grinding. The material and facets of the crystal determine the quality of the crystal.
Conventional imported crystals are divided into three categories: Czech crystals, Egyptian crystals and Swarovski crystals. Czech and Egyptian crystal grades and prices are similar. Prices from low to high: domestic crystal – Czech crystal – Egyptian crystal – Swarovski crystal.
The distinction of Chinese crystals: the number and accuracy of materials and facets. The Chinese crystal is imported from the material: K5 crystal — K9 crystal — imitation. In terms of craftsmanship: hand grinding – machine grinding; the so-called crystal glass is real, it is beyond ordinary glass and large white glass, the color is cyan and the sound is as crisp as crystal, it is between glass and crystal A transitional product, the price is high and the order quantity of a single batch requires a furnace.
Knowledge about crystal craftsmanship:
Czech crystals are not necessarily produced in the Czech Republic. All the raw materials purchased in the Czech Republic and processed outside the country can be collectively referred to as Czech crystals.
Egyptian crystal, also known as ASFOUR, is a high-quality crystal with low price and high quality. There is a jumping eagle inside the crystal piece as an anti-counterfeiting mark.
SWAROVSKI, born in Austria, is the world’s leading manufacturer of precision-cut imitation crystals, representing fashion and trends; only those with numbers starting with 8 and greater than 18mm will have the laser logo of the swan.
Baccarat: Known as the “Noble Crystal”. Its pioneering work is to develop opaque crystals, that is to say, on the basis of not increasing the lead content, the high refractive index of the crystal is still maintained, and the crystal becomes an opaque color. Each of Baccarat’s crystal lamps has small pieces of red crystal.
Processing specifications of chinese crystal parts: regular reference size 600*600*400mm; super-normal 800*800*400mm; crystal board (bubble and clear light) maximum: 620*420* (15~60mm, 5mm a specification). Exceeding the conventional specifications, the processing difficulty and the price increase exponentially
Resin is also divided into several types: ordinary white blank, imitation marble, transparent resin, glass fiber reinforced plastic. Resin products are characterized by good plasticity, low mold cost, and can be processed into a variety of artistic shapes. The disadvantage is that it is not environmentally friendly, and is restricted by many exporting countries, and the surface is difficult to handle to smooth.
White blank is one of the most widely used aspects of resin products. The finished product is white, powdery on the surface, brittle and brittle. The surface needs manual fine grinding before entering the surface treatment program. The surface is mainly European-style paint, and it can also be vacuum plated with chrome or gold and silver.
The imitation marble is the raw material or the resin, but after the addition of ingredients, the displayed characteristics are different. It is a product that is processed by imitating some characteristics of real marble. Basically, it is a common specification of plate. Of course, it can also be processed into a three-dimensional product like a white blank. Conventional plate: 1220*2440mm, limit size: 2000*3000mm. Bowl cover: up to D2000*H1000mm, integrally formed
Transparent resin is the most expensive in this category. There are many decorations and works of art, all of which are made of transparent resin. The craftsmanship is good, and it can be similar to the surface and color of colored glaze.
Of course, the price is always higher than that of real colored glaze, even priceless. The price of transparent resin is about 50 yuan/kg, and the cost of engraving and mold is the same as that of white blank. The permeability, bubbles, and impurities are the most difficult to control. The quality of the product is based on these three points.
FRP is essentially a special resin, the professional name is FRP. In the lighting industry, glass fiber is added to ordinary white resin and mixed. It has an important special role in the craftsmanship of lamps and lanterns.
Such as light weight, high toughness, not easy to break and so on. The mold fee and product unit price of FRP are about three times that of ordinary white embryos. The conventional thickness of FRP is 3~5mm thick. Application range: large, special-shaped, outdoor, load-bearing, etc. are preferred
There are three conventional types: ordinary acrylic, high-permeability acrylic, and endurance board. The price of acrylic is generally calculated by weight, which can be screen printing, frosting, engraving, laser cutting, etc. The thickness of the sheet varies from 3.0 to 30 mm. The length and width are 1220*2440mm/1500*3000mm, and the bar is from D5~D200mm.
Ordinary acrylic is often used for sanding, printing oil, etc. due to quality reasons such as light transmittance, and is most commonly used for visors or astigmatism.
High-permeability acrylic, as the name suggests, has better light transmittance and has two effects of pure clear light and bubbles. Often used as a substitute for crystal materials. For special effects, laser engraving is carried out on it, which is used as the substrate of the light guide plate; the surface can also be engraved, polished, machined, etc., used as a decorative pendant.
Solid sheet is characterized by strong impact resistance, which is 250~300 times that of ordinary glass, 30 times that of acrylic, and 20 times that of tempered glass. This means that it is not easy to break, has excellent toughness, but has about the light transmittance of acrylic. -40 degrees below zero can maintain basic performance. Its characteristics determine its unique use, for structures that can both bear weight and require light transmittance. The flame retardancy and flexibility of the solid board are suitable for the suspended load-bearing structure of large lamps.
Wood art material
The biggest problem with solid wood lamps is that the distillation process in the lighting industry is not good enough. Therefore, when lamps and lanterns are used in the north or south, special attention must be paid to the reminder to customers: solid wood parts for lighting are easy to crack in the north! Consider changing to other materials or hardware for cladding & wood grain effects.
Common types of cloth covers include flat cover, folding cover, knife cover, elastic cover, wire drawing cover, double lampshade, palace cover and so on.
There are two ways of sticking PVC on the back of the fabric (generally 0.2~0.4MM) and not sticking PVC. For those who need a certain hardness to support and do not want to see the shadow of the bracket, materials with PVC lining are generally used. For example, flat cover, knife scene cover, etc.; and some need flexible texture, because there is no hardness support, there is no PVC lined but must have an iron lined frame, such as folding scene cover, palace cover and so on. Price depends on material and size.
Double-layer fabric lampshade: usually adopts the outer layer of transparent PVC with gauze material, and the inner layer of PVC-lined flat lampshade method, because there must be a minimum gap of not less than 30mm between the two layers of lampshade, so double-layer iron is required. The frame can be formed.
Brushed cover and stretch fabric: The brushed cover should be the highest cost, and it is made by manually winding the silk thread on the light frame; the most used stretch cloth is elastic or pleated cloth, such as the common marine cloth, which is For processing drum-shaped and special-shaped lampshades, the interior needs to be lined with iron frames to form.
The basic process of lampshade processing:
- Fabric selvedge: There are flat and borderless, natural color fabric edging, other colored fabric edging, cloth decorative lace and beaded decorative tape, etc.
- Cloth cover interface: Because of the strength of glue, the interface should not be less than 8mm. Need a narrow edge, you can take the way of sewing.
- The lampshade needs to be fixed, there are three types: E14 ring, E27 ring and bubble type.
- The conventional lampshade basically needs a built-in wire frame to bear the force, and the wire frame is generally 4.0mm. As the diameter increases, the iron wire may also use 5.0mm, 6.0mm, and sometimes a pipe rack is required.
Spanish real marble
Spanish real marble is widely used because of its unique surface texture, but the price is also very expensive.
Plate: The maximum material specification is; 1000*1000mm. The actual size of the rectangle that can be processed is: 950*950mm, and the wafer: D900mm.
Bowl shape: the maximum machinable specification is: D900*H120mm, the actual technology, procurement and processing should pay attention to the specification limit.
Plate: The maximum material specification is; 1000*1000mm. The actual size of the rectangle that can be processed is: 950*950mm, and the wafer: D900mm.
Bowl shape: The maximum machinable specification is: D1000*H250mm. In actual technology, procurement and processing, attention should be paid to specification restrictions.
Plate: The maximum specification is; 3000*1600mm, thickness 18mm. Disc: no more than D3000mm.
Cylindrical shape: The maximum machinable specification is: D300*H400mm. In actual technology, procurement and processing, attention should be paid to specification restrictions.
Price (including regular processing fee): 15000/M³. Common colors are jazz white, black crack, white crack, brown reticulate, emerald, etc.
The Cost of Bespoke Lighting
The cost of custom lighting is closely related to the following aspects: material, surface treatment, size, order quantity, delivery time, lighting appearance and other factors.
Referring to the above material section, the cost of different materials is different. Among them, iron and aluminum are relatively cheap and are also the most commonly used, followed by stainless steel, which is not very different from the price of iron. Other materials such as copper, 24K gold, etc., will be more expensive. But gloss and texture are noble.
For the surface treatment of metal, aluminum can only be anodized, not electroplated. Among them, the cost of electroplating and vacuum plating is relatively high, but their anti-oxidation effect is the best, and there is no problem in maintaining 2-3 years of rust under normal temperature and humidity conditions.
In terms of non-metallic surface treatment, such as glass spray paint, the cheapest, but the maintenance time is short, especially when used at the seaside, high temperature, high humidity and salinity, glass spray paint generally only lasts for half a year. Different solutions need to be designed according to different usage scenarios. The cost will also increase accordingly.
The diameter of our common chandeliers Dia 50CM and Dia 60CM are not about 10% different in diameter, but doubled. So accurate lamp size can allow manufacturers to quote more accurately.
Costs also multiply when the size exceeds the material limit size or the size of the machine tool.
Therefore, a regular sized luminaire would be the most cost-effective solution.
The larger the single order quantity, the lower the production cost. Because raw materials are produced in batches and workers are processed in batches, especially some lampshades and other accessories need to be made new molds, and the large number of orders can share the mold cost. If the appearance requirements can be slightly reduced, using existing molds is also an effective way to reduce the cost of customized lamps.
It is best to reserve 30 to 60 days for the delivery time. If the project delivery time is very urgent, the manufacturer will need to work overtime frequently and postpone the delivery of other goods in order to complete the goods in a particularly short time. The increased production costs are naturally reflected in the price of lamps.
Design of lamps
For lamps with complex structures, such as the fusion of multiple materials, or those with complex shapes or patterns, the cost will be relatively high.
Generally, the cost of hollow carving design has nothing to do with the complexity of the pattern, but is related to the area of the pattern.
If it is acceptable to replace some parts with off-the-shelf parts of similar appearance, the cost of the luminaire will also be greatly reduced.
The impact of COVID-19 on the lighting industry
Since the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, the supply chain of lamps has been hit hard. Mainly reflected in rising raw material prices, shortage of light source chips, intermittent land logistics being blocked, shipping prices rising exponentially, shortage of shipping positions, and delays in customs clearance caused by the shortage of loading, unloading and handling labor at the destination port.
This has a great impact on custom lighting projects. In particular, the delivery time is difficult to predict, and even if the production end is delivered on time, there are often delays of one to two months in the international shipping and customs clearance process. Therefore, customers should try to arrange the order production as early as possible, so as not to delay the completion date.
How to check out if your bespoke lighting manufacturer reliable or not?
The quality of custom lamps consists of two important sections, one is product quality and the other is installation quality. In addition to providing customers with high-quality products, good manufacturers also provide customers with peace of mind and service.
There are several key points to judge whether a manufacturer can make good quality:
Having a lot of production experience means having a lot of problem solving experience, and less chance of making mistakes when producing your lamps. Another thing that also represents them is the strong manufacturers who have survived the elimination of the market for many years.
Manufacturers have more production machinery, which means that they can master the quality of lamps and lanterns to a greater extent. Because no machinery is outsourced, it will be more difficult to control the quality of finished accessories. Quality inspection and rework will lag behind, and the cost will be high, resulting in lamps and lanterns. The finished product has many defects. In particular, there is a need for a factory’s own hardware department.
Skilled workers can ensure that the production rate of defective products is reduced and the delivery time is shortened. Otherwise, if temporary workers are often recruited for production, the recruitment time is sometimes long and sometimes short, and the workers’ manual skills cannot be effectively guaranteed.
No price increase in the production process
Some manufacturers will give very low quotations at the beginning of the quotation, but after the order is confirmed, various production processes need to increase the price, either because the price of raw materials is increased, or the price does not include packaging costs and other unprofessional reasons.
There are even manufacturers who have not passed the evaluation of the size limit and structure of the lamp material during the quotation process, and will feedback to the customer during the production process that the order size cannot be produced, and the material and size must be changed.
No reason to sell
There will be many unexpected situations during the installation of bespoke lighting. If the supplier can provide after-sale services for no reason, it is the greatest protection to ensure the normal completion of the project.
ANC lighting specializes in the production of custom lamps for nearly 20 years, ensuring that the production process does not increase prices. Can provide you with worry-free after-sales. If necessary, welcome to inquire.
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